Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic pain disorder of too many trigger points.


Trigger points or muscle “knots” which are sore spots in soft tissue that cause deep aching.

Dr. Hardy has been treating trigger points since 1990 as taught by Dr. Janet Travell, M.D., (1901-1997).

An American medical doctor and the personal rheumatologist of United States president John F. Kennedy, whom was the first to propose the term myofascial trigger point ” in 1942.


The most effective treatment approaches that we offer in our office includes the following:

  • Spray and Stretch
  • Myofascial Release
  • Acupuncture / Dry Needling
  • Injection of a combination of Procaine or Lidocaine, Dextrose, B12, Magnesium or Ozone.

In several instances, Dr. Hardy may  combine the above treatments to give you the quickest and best results possible.


For additional information and pain referral patterns, please read the following information below:

Trigger Point Symptoms and Referred Pain Patterns

Pain is a complex symptom experienced differently and individually.


However, referred pain is the defining symptom of a myofascial trigger point.


You may be used to the idea of referred pain of a visceral origin; an example of this is heart pain. 


A heart attack is often not experienced as crushing chest pain, but as pain in the left arm and hand, and in the left jaw.


Referred pain from a myofascial trigger point is somewhat different.


It is a distinct and discreet pattern

or map of pain.


These images are consistent and stimulating an active trigger point generates either part or all of the entire map of pain.


Patients describe referred pain in these images as having a deep, aching quality; movement may sometimes exacerbate symptoms, making the pain sharper.


An example of this might me a headache.


The patient often describes a pattern of pain, or ache, which can sometimes be aggravated and made sharper by moving the head and neck.

The sternocleidomastoid muscle most often creates headaches behind the eye and near the temple.

Trigger Point Classification

Trigger Points are described in various ways according to location, tenderness and chronicity. 


The 6 different types of trigger points are described below:

Primary (or Central) Trigger Points

These are the most well-established when they are active, and are usually what people refer to when they talk about trigger points.


The primary trigger points always exist in the center of the muscle belly.

Secondary (or Satellite) Trigger Points

Secondary trigger points may be created as a response to the central trigger point in neighboring muscles that lie within the referred pain zone.

The scalene muscles are a common source of neck, shoulder and arm pain with numbness and tingling of the arm and hand.

Diffuse Trigger Points

Trigger points can sometimes occur where multiple secondary trigger points exist secondary to multiple primary trigger points.

Latent (or Inactive) Trigger Points

This applies to lumps and nodules that feel like trigger points.


These can develop anywhere in the body; and are often secondary.


However these trigger points are not painful, and do not elicit a referred pain pathway.

Active Trigger Points

This can apply to primary and secondary trigger points.


This trigger point is both tender to palpation and elicits a referred pain pattern.

The Gluteus Minimus can mimic sciatica, which is a description of pain, numbness and tingling down the leg.


Trigger points found within the anterior portion of the gluteus minimus muscle will typically refer pain and tenderness along the lateral outer portion of the buttock, lateral thigh, and lateral leg to the ankle, mimicking L5 radicular symptoms

Call Now